Every time a driver presses a vehicle's gas pedal, they are controlling how much air and fuel enters the engine. The air filter helps keep debris from entering the engine and a fuel filter helps protect the fuel system.
The fuel from the fuel tank is typically pumped from a pump inside the fuel tank to the engine. In the line between the fuel tank and the engine, a fuel filter is typically present to help protect the fuel system. As a fuel filter slowly becomes clogged, the restricted fuel flow could lead to poor acceleration and reduced engine performance as well as other issues.